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Golf - Golf Glossary (anglais/anglais) - Article du : 12/04/2012


Ace : A hole in one; as a verb, to shoot a hole in one.
Address :The position taken by a player in preparation for a shot. As a verb, to take such a position, usually in the phrase "address the ball."
Aggregate : A score made by two or more players as partners, or over more than one round of play.
Airball : A swing that doesn't contact the ball.
Albatross : Obsolete name for a double eagle.
Amateur : A golfer who plays for fun, not for money.
Approach shot : A short or medium-range shot played to the green.
Apron : The area of grass surrounding the putting surface; also known as the fringe.
Attack : To play aggressively.
Automatic : Descriptive of an easy putt; also, an extra nassau bet that's allowed whenever a player is two points behind.
Away : Descriptive of the ball farthest from the hole, or of the golfer whose ball it is. The golfer who is away shoots first.

Back door : The rear of the hole. When a putt goes around the hole and then drops in the back of the cup, it is said to have gone in the back door. Sometimes used as a verb, as in, "he back doored that putt."
Back lip : The edge of a bunker that is farthest from the hole.
Back nine : The second 9 holes on an 18-hole course.
Back side : Same as back nine.
Backspin : Backward spin around the ball's horizontal axis that will make it stop or even roll back upon landing.
Backswing : The portion of the swing when the club is taken from the ground back over the head.
Baffy : An obsolete 5 wood with the loft of a 3 or 4 iron. Sometimes applied to the 4 wood.
Bail out : To avoid or get out of trouble. There are two different senses here: making a long putt is one way of bailing out; another is to hit a safe shot rather than risk playing the ball into a hazard.
Ball : The modern golf ball must be at least 1.68 inches in diameter and weigh no more than 1.62 ounces. There are several different types of construction, from a one-piece molded rubber ball to multi-layer balls that have liquid or solid centers wound with rubber thread. The covering is hard rubber or synthetic material covered with surface indentations, known as dimples.
Ball marker : A small coin or token used to spot the ball's position on the putting surface.
Ball retriever : A pole with a scoop or net attached, used to retrieve balls from water hazards and other areas that are difficult to reach.
Banana ball : A very bad slice; from the shape of its path.
Baseball grip : A grip in which all ten fingers are on the club shaft, similar to the way a baseball bat is gripped.
Beach : A sand hazard.
Belt : To hit the ball with extreme power.
Bend : The curve on a shot; as a verb, to hit a hook or slice.
Bent grass : The most common type of grass on northern courses.
Bermuda : The most common type of grass on southern courses.
Best ball : Descriptive of a match in which the best individual score of two or more partners is the score for a hole. Also, the score itself, as in, "smith had the best ball with a birdie, while his partner shot par."
Birdie : One stroke under par on a hole.
Bird's nest : An unfortunate lie, in which the ball is cupped in deep grass, like an egg in a nest.
Birds : A type of competition in which a point is awarded for a birdie and two points for an eagle, on any hole.
Bisque : A handicap stroke that can be taken on any hole, provided the player announces his intention before teeing off on that hole.
Bite : See backspin.
Blade : The hitting part of the clubhead on an iron. As a verb, to top an iron shot.
Blade putter : A putter with an iron head that's very similar to the numbered irons.
Blast : A shot from a sand trap that takes a large amount of sand with it; as a verb, to hit such a shot.
Blind bogey : A competition in which a score is drawn from a hit and the winner is the player the player who comes closest to matching it.
Blind hole : A hole on which the putting green cannot be seen as the player approaches it.
Block : To hit a slice by delaying the rotation of the wrists, forcing the clubhead to arc from inside to outside at impact. Usually done deliberately because of the ball's location.
Bogey : A score of one over the designated par for a hole. As a verb, to score a bogey. Sometimes spelled "bogie."
Bold : Usually descriptive of a putt that's hit too hard and goes well beyond the hole, but it might be applied to any shot that carries too far or to a firmly hit approach shot to a pin that's well protected.
Borrow : To play a putt to the side of the hole in order to compensate for the slope or curve of the green.
Boundary : An imaginary line that marks the limit of the golf course and defines the area of play. A ball hit beyond the boundary is out of bounds.
Bowker : A poor shot that bounds back into play after hitting a spectator, a tree, or some other unlikely helpful object.
Brassie : Obsolete name for a 2 wood, because it originally had a brass sole plate.
Break : 1. To make less than a particular score, as in breaking par, breaking 90, breaking 100, etc.; 2. The direction in which the ball will roll because of the green's slope.
Bulger : An obsolete, pear-shaped wooden club with a convex face.
Bump and run : Same as chip and run.
Bunker : A hazard consisting of an area of bare ground, often a depression, usually covered or filled with sand.
Bunt : To hit a shot intentionally short.
Burn : Scottish for a creek or stream.
Buzzard : A score of two strokes over the designated par for a hole; a takeoff on eagle.
Bye : In match-play tournaments, a free pass to the next round without having to compete.
Bye holes : The holes that remain unplayed because a match has been decided. For example, if a player is ahead by five holes with only four left to play, those four holes are not played.

Caddie : A person who carries a player's clubs and may assist with advice, in accordance with the rules. Sometimes spelled "caddy."
Caddie master : A golf course employee who's in charge of the caddies.
Can : To make a putt.
Cap : The top end of a club grip and shaft.
Card : A golfer's score card; as a verb, to make a specific score, as in, "i carded a 5 on that hole."
Carpet : A large area of grass, such as a fairway or putting green.
Carry : The length of travel by the ball through the air, before it hits the ground.
Casual water : A temporary accumulation of water, usually from rain, that is not a water hazard. A player is allowed to lift the ball from casual water without penalty.
Center shafted : Descriptive of a putter on which the shaft is attached to the center of the head.
Charge : To come from behind to win a tournament; to play aggressively.
Chili-dip : A shot on which the club head hits the ground before the ball, resulting in a weak, lofted shot.
Chip-and-run : A chip shot, usually hit from just off the green, on which the ball rolls a considerable distance toward the hole after landing.
Chip shot : A short approach shot with a low trajectory, usually hit with topspin or backspin.
Chip in : To hit a chip shot into the hole.
Choke : To grip the club farther down on the handle than usual.
Chop : To hit down on the ball with a sharp hacking motion in order to apply extra spin.
Cleat : A spike on a golf shoe.
Cleek : Formerly, a narrow-bladed iron used for long shots from the rough or sand; now sometimes applied to the 4 wood or 1 iron.
Closed face : The position of the club face when it is pointed slightly to the left of the target.
Closed stance : A stance in which the left foot extends over the ball's line of flight. Opposite of open stance.
Club : The instrument used to strike the golf ball; its basic components are the grip, the shaft, and the head. Also, an organization or association of golfers.
Clubhouse : The main building on a golf course, which houses lockers, meeting rooms, restaurants, bar, and other facilities.
Clubhouse lawyer : A self-appointed arbiter who doesn't usually know the rules as well as he thinks he does.
Club professional : A professional who works for a golf club as a teacher and equipment supplier and plays only in local events.
Cock : To bend the wrists during the backswing, in preparation for bringing the club forward.
Collar : Strictly speaking, the edge of a sand trap, but also used to describe the fringe around the putting surface.
Condor : A triple eagle, that is, four under par on a hole. A very rare occurrence, since it requires a hole in one on a par 5 hole.
Control shot : A shot played with emphasis on accuracy, often hit with less than full power. Also "controlled shot."
Course : The entire playing area for a round or match, usually comprising 9 or 18 holes, each of which has a teeing ground, a fairway, and a green.
Course rating : An evaluation of a course in terms of difficulty, as compared to other courses, expressed in strokes and decimal fractions of a stroke. The course rating is used in computing handicaps.
Cross bunker : A bunker, usually long and narrow, that crosses the fairway.
Cross-handed grip : An unorthodox grip in which the left hand is below the right hand.
Cup : See hole.
Cuppy : Descriptive of a lie in which the ball sits in a cup-shaped depression.
Cut : The highest score that allows a player to continue in a tournament, usually determined after the first 36 holes of a 72-hole tournament. If a player shoots that score or lower, he is said to have made the cut. To shoot a higher score is to miss the cut.
Cut in : To hit an approach shot precisely, usually with backspin, to a well-protected pin.
Cut shot : A high, soft shot that stops almost immediately when it hits the green.

Dance floor : The putting green.
Dead : Descriptive of a shot that stops immediately when it lands.
Dead ball : A ball that is so close to the hole that there's no doubt it will be sunk with the next putt.
Deuce : A hole made in two strokes.
Dimple : One of the indentations on a golf ball that allow it to fly farther and straighter. A dimple is usually round, although some are polygonal. There are 300 to 500 dimples on a ball.
Divot : A piece of turf cut out by the club head when a shot is made. The golfer is obligated to replace the divot and tamp it down.
Dogleg : A bend in the fairway.
Dormie : The situation, in match play, in which a golfer is ahead by as many holes as are left to play. If that golfer wins just one of the remaining holes, the match is over.
Double bogey : A score of 2 over the designated par for a hole.
Double eagle : A score of 3 under the designated par for a hole.
Down : The number of holes, in match play, or the number of strokes, in stroke play, that a player is behind an opponent.
Downhill lie : A lie on which a right-handed golfer's right foot is higher than the left foot.
Downswing : The portion of the swing from the top of the backswing to the point of impact.
Draw : A method of pairing opponents for a match-play tournament; as a verb, to hit a draw shot.
Draw shot : A controlled shot that curves from left to right for a right-handed golfer, deliberately hit to get position or to get out of trouble.
Drive : Usually, to hit the ball from the tee; also, to hit the ball with a full swing and maximum force.
Driver : The no. 1 wood, the longest hitting club, used most often from the tee on a hole requiring maximum distance.
Driving iron : Obsolete name for various iron clubs; now used only for the no. 1 iron.
Driving mashie : An obsolete club, less lofted than a mashie iron, used for long shots.
Driving range : An area where a number of golfers can practice their tee shots and other strokes.
Drop : The act of depositing a ball on the course to put it in play after it has been declared unplayable or to replace a lost ball. See also free drop.
Dub : A missed or poorly-hit shot.
Duffer : A poor golfer; a hacker.
Dunk : To hit the ball into a water hazard.

Eagle : Two strokes under the designated par for a hole. Also used as a verb, as in, "he eagled the ninth hole."
Equipment : Anything used, carried, or worn by a player, except a ball in play.
Explode : Same as blast.
Explosion shot : A shot out of a sand trap that takes a great deal of sand with it.
Extra : Same as press.
Extra hole : A hole played after a regulation round or match to break a tie.

Face : The hitting surface of a club head.
Fade : A controlled shot on which the ball curves slightly from left to right at the end of its flight, when hit by a right-handed golfer. As a verb, to hit such a shot.
Fairway : The area of the course between tee and green that is well kept, usually affording a good lie for the ball.
Fairway wood : A wood club used to hit the ball from the fairway, rather than the driver.
Fan : To swing and miss the ball completely.
Fat shot : A shot on which the club hits the ground before it hits the ball, resulting in loss of distance.
Feather : To hit a long, high that drops lightly on the green, with little roll.
Field : All of the players in a tournament.
Flag : Short for flagstick.
Flagstick : The marker placed in the hole to show its location.
Flange : A surface that protrudes from the sole of the head to improve a club's balance.
Flash trap : A small, shallow sand trap.
Flat swing : A swing on which the club is carried back at a relatively low angle to the ground, usually from the inside out, which is likely to cause a hook.
Flex : The amount of bend in the shaft of a club.
Flier : A shot hit with little or no spin that travels farther than normal.
Flier lie : Specifically, a lie in which the ball is sitting in clover or tufted grass; generally, any good lie in the rough.
Flight : A division of players of relatively equal ability in a tournament. There are usually 16 players in a flight.
Flip shot : A short, high shot, usually played with a highly lofted iron.
Flub : A poor shot, usually caused by hitting the ground before the ball.
Follow-through : The portion of the swing after the ball has been struck.
Fore : A warning called out to those who may be in danger from the flight of the ball.
Forecaddie : A person employed by a golf course or tournament committee to spot and mark the location of a player's ball.
Four-ball : A match between two teams of two players each in which the better ball of one team is played against the better ball of the other. See also best ball.
Foursome : Strictly, a match between two teams of two players each, in which each team plays one ball, with the partners alternating shots. Often erroneously applied to a four-ball match. Also, a group of four individuals playing a round together.
Free drop : A drop for which there is no penalty stroke.
Fried egg : See plugged lie.
Fringe : See apron.
Frog hair : Short grass bordering the edge of the green.
Front nine : The first nine holes on an 18-hole course.
Front side : Same as front nine.

Gallery :The area for spectators, alongside the fairways and around the green; by extension, the spectators themselves.
Gimme : An easy putt that is likely to be conceded by the opponent.
Go to school : To learn how a putt will break by watching another player's putt along approximately the same line.
Goose neck : Descriptive of a club on which the neck is slightly curved, so that the heel is offset from the line of the shaft.
Grain : The direction in which the grass on the putting surface grows, and therefore the direction in which it lies after it has been cut short.
Grand slam : Golf's modern grand slam comprises four major tournaments: the British Open, the US Open, the PGA Championship, and the Masters.
Grasscutter : A hard-hit shot that follows a very low trajectory.
Green :In the official rules, the entire golf course is called the green. However, the term is commonly used to mean the putting green, or putting surface, on a given hole.
Green committee : The members of a golf club who oversee management and maintenance of the course.
Green fee : The fee charged a player for the privilege of using a course.
Greenkeeper : The club employee who is responsible for course maintenance.
Grip : 1) the area of the shaft where the club is held; 2) the manner in which a player grasps and holds the club.
Groove : 1) the path through which the club travels in a consistently repeated swing; 2) linear scoring on the face of a club.
Gross : The total number of strokes taken on a round, before the player's handicap is deducted to determine the net score.
Ground the club : To touch the head of the club to the ground behind the ball at address.
Ground under repair : A portion of the course that is being repaired. If a ball lands in such an area, it can be removed without penalty.

Hacker : A duffer.
Half shot : A shot played with a half swing.
Half swing : A swing on which the club is taken back only partway.
Halved : In match play, a hole is said to be halved when both sides play it in the same number of strokes.
Handicap : The number of strokes deducted from a player's gross score to determine the net score. It's essentially based on the player's average score over a period of time, minus par.
Handicap player : A player whose average score is above par, and who therefore is given a handicap in certain kinds of competition.
Hanging lie : A lie in which the ball rests on a downhill slope.
Hazard : Any bunker or water hazard designed into a course to create difficulty for the golfer. Roads, tracks, paths, bare patches of ground, and areas containing casual water are not hazards.
Head : The part of the golf club that makes contact with the ball.
Heel : The part of the head nearest the shaft. As a verb, to hit the ball with this part of the club, which sends it at a right angle to the intended line of flight.
Hog's back : A ridge on the fairway, or a hole that has such a ridge.
Hole : A round receptacle in the green, 4 ½" in diameter and at least 4 inches deep, usually lined with a metal cup. Also, one of the nine or eighteen areas that contains a hole, as in, "the ninth hole is a 410-yard par 3."
Hole high : Descriptive of a ball that is at the same distance from the tee as the hole, but off to one side.
Hole in one : A hole made in one stroke.
Hole out : To complete play on a hole by hitting the ball into the cup.
Holed : The ball is considered holed when it lies within the circumference of the hole and is entirely below the level of the lip.
Home green : The green on the last hole of the course.
Home pro : Same as club professional.
Honor : The privilege of hitting first from the tee on a given hole. It goes to the player who won the preceding hole or the last hole that was won. On the first tee, it's usually decided by a coin toss.
Hook : A shot that curves from right to left for a right-handed golfer.
Hosel : The hollow part of the head of an iron, into which the shaft is fitted.

In : Descriptive of the second nine holes of the course, since the golfer is generally moving in toward the clubhouse when playing those holes. See also out.
In play : The ball is in play as soon as the player has made a stroke in the teeing ground. It remains in play until the player has holed out, except when it goes out of bounds, is lost, is lifted, or is replaced by another ball in accordance with the rules.
Inside : Descriptive of the ball closest from the hole, or of the golfer whose ball it is. The opposite of away.
Interlocking grip : A grip in which the left little finger is intertwined with the right index finger, for a right-handed golfer.
In the leather : Descriptive of a ball that lies no farther from the hole than the length of the leather wrapping on the player's grip. In friendly competition, players often agree to concede such putts.
Iron : A club with a metal head. The irons are numbered 1 through 9. As the number increases, the face of the club becomes larger and more lofted. The wedge is also an iron, which has the greatest loft of all.

Jigger : An obsolete iron that had a narrow blade and approximately the loft of a modern no. 4 iron.
Jungle : Heavy rough.
Kick : An erratic or unpredictable bounce, usually caused by the ball's hitting an object or landing in unusual topography.

Lag : A long putt, on which the object is to get the ball near the hole so that it can be sunk with the next putt. As a verb, to hit such a putt.
Lateral hazard : A hazard that runs parallel to the line of play, usually alongside the fairway.
Lay up : To hit a shot that will stop short of a hazard, rather than risking the hazard by attempting a longer shot to the green.
Leader board : A sign on which the scores of the leading golfers are posted during a tournament.
Lie : The position of the ball after it comes to rest anywhere between the tee and the putting surface. A lie is described as good if the ball can be struck cleanly. But see also lying.
Line : The direction in which the ball should be hit. In most cases, it refers to the path that a putt must take, but it can also refer to shots toward the green.
Line up : To study the putting surface in order to determine how a putt should be hit.
Links : Originally, a seaside course, but now any golf course.
Lip : The upper rim of the hole.
Lob shot : A shot that goes almost straight up and comes almost straight down, most often used when the golfer has very little green to work with.
Local rules : Rules established by a club because of unusual course conditions.
Loft : 1) the elevation of the ball when it has been hit into the air; 2) the angle at which the club face is set from the vertical. The greater the club's loft, the higher the ball is lifted.
Long game : That part of the game of golf involving shots in which distance is important.
Long irons : The irons with less loft, which tend to hit the ball farther.
Loose impediment : Any natural object that is not fixed in place, growing, or adhering to the ball. Among loose impediments are pebbles, leaves, twigs, branches, insects, etc.
Lost ball : A ball is considered lost if: 1) it cannot be found within five minutes after the search begins; 2) the player declares it lost before the search has lasted five minutes; 3) a ball is found within the five-minute period, but the player cannot identify it as his.
Low ball and total : A team bet in which, on each hole, the best ball of each team wins a point and the lowest total score by partners wins another point.
Lying : Designation for the number of shots a golfer has taken on a given hole. For example, "lying three" means that the golfer has taken three shots and is about to hit the fourth.

Mallet : A putter with a wide, heavy head, similar to that of a croquet mallet.
Marker : 1) an object that marks the forward limits of the teeing ground. 2) a scorer in stroke play, often a fellow competitor. 3) a ball marker 4) a rating marker.
Marshal : A tournament official whose primary duty is to keep order among the spectators.
Mashie : A lofted iron that's now obsolete. Sometimes applied to the no. 5 iron.
Mashie-iron : An iron with less loft than the mashie, also now obsolete. Sometimes applied to the no. 4 iron.
Mashie-niblick : An obsolete iron with a loft between that of the mashie and the niblick. Sometimes applied to the no. 5 or no. 6 iron.
Match play : A competition in which each hole is a separate contest and victory goes to the player or team winning the most holes. If both contestants get the same score on a hole, it is said to have been halved. A player or team that has won one more hole than the opponent is said to be "one up." if the lead becomes more than the number of holes remaining, the match is over. For example, if a player is three up with two holes to play, he or she wins, and the final score is expressed as "three and two," or "3-2."
Medalist : The player who has the lowest qualifying score in a tournament.
Medal play : Same as stroke play.
Mid-iron : An obsolete iron club that had more loft than a driving iron. Now sometimes applied to the no. 2 iron.
Mid-mashie : An obsolete iron club that had more loft than a mid-iron. Now sometimes applied to the no. 3 iron.
Mixed foursome : A foursome in which each side has a male and a female player.
Muff : To hit a shot poorly.
Mulligan : In casual play, a golfer who hits a poor tee shot is sometimes allowed to take a second shot without penalty. The second shot is called a "mulligan." it's usually allowed only on the first tee. See also shapiro.

Nassau : A type of competition in which a point is awarded for winning the first nine holes, another point for winning the second nine, and a third point for winning the entire 18-hole round. Each point usually represents a separate bet.
Neck : The tapered area of the club shaft where it joins the head.
Net : A player's score after the handicap is subtracted from the gross score.
Niblick : An obsolete iron that was commonly used for playing out of the sand or from the rough. The term was also formerly applied to the no. 9 iron.
Nineteenth hole : The clubhouse bar.
Nose : On a club, same as toe.

Observer : An official who watches golfers, usually on a specific section of the course, and reports any breach of rules to the referee.
Obstruction : Any artificial object erected, placed, or left on the course, with the exception of boundary markers, paths, and roads.
Offset : Descriptive of a club in which the head is set behind the shaft.
Open : A tournament to which both amateurs and professionals are admitted.
Open stance : A stance in which the left foot is moved farther back from the ball's line of flight. Opposite of closed stance.
Out : Descriptive of the first nine holes of the course, since the golfer is generally moving away from the clubhouse when playing those holes. See also in.
Out of bounds : The ground outside of the course boundaries. If a ball is hit out of bounds, the player is penalized stroke and distance.
Outside agency : Any agency not part of the match or, in stroke play, not part of the competitor's side. Among outside agencies are observers, forecaddies, markers, and the referee.
Overclub : To use a club that results in too much distance.
Overlapping grip : A grip in which the right little finger overlaps the area between the left forefinger and second finger, for a right-handed golfer.

Pair : Two golfers who are playing together in stroke competition. As a verb, to assign golfers to play together, as in, "the tournament committee paired Nicklaus and Palmer."
Par : The number of strokes, designated for each hole, that represents a standard of good performance. The par figures for individual holes are added up to represent par for a course. Par is generally based on the length of a hole from the tee to the green, although adjustments may be made for configuration of the ground, severity of hazards, and other difficult or unusual conditions. See the following entries.
Par 3 : A par 3 hole is up to 250 yards in length for men, 210 yards for women.
Par 4 : A par 4 hole is 250 to 471 yards in length for men, 211 to 400 yards for women.
Par 5 : A par 5 hole is more than 470 yards in length for men, more than 401 yards for women.
Partner : One of two or more players on the same side in a match.
Penalty stroke : An additional stroke that's added to a player's score because of a rules violation. See also stroke and distance.
Pick up : To take up the ball before holing out. In stroke play, picking up incurs disqualification. In match play, it concedes the hole to the opponent.
Pin : Same as flagstick.
Pin-high : Same as hole high.
Pin placement : The location of the hole on a putting green. During a tournament, pin placement generally changes from one day to the next.
Pin position : Same as pin placement.
Pitch : A short shot, lofted high toward the putting green, usually with backspin.
Pinsetter : The official who is responsible for pin placement.
Pitch and run : A type of pitch shot hit with less arc and no backspin, so the ball will roll toward the pin after it lands on the green.
Pitching niblick : Obsolete name for the no. 8 iron.
Pitching wedge : An iron with a heavy flange, designed primarily for hitting pitch shots.
Pivot : The rotation of the hips, trunk, and shoulders during the swing.
Play off : To play further holes or another round in order to determine the winner of a tie match.
Play through : To pass a group of golfers who are playing ahead. Golf etiquette dictates that a slow group should allow a faster-playing group to play through.
Plugged lie : A lie in which the ball is buried in sand.
Plus handicap : A player whose average is below par has a plus handicap, meaning that he must add strokes to the gross, rather than subtracting them, to determine the net score.
Pot bunker : A small, deep sand trap that has steep sides.
Preferred lie : Under local rules, a manner in which a player is allowed to improve his lie without incurring a penalty.
Press : An extra bet on the remaining holes. For example, one the 16th tee, a golfer may offer a "five-dollar press" or "five-dollar extra," meaning he wants to bet five dollars on the last three holes.
Professional : A player who receives monetary competition for playing in tournaments or for giving lessons. Commonly shortened to "pro."
Pro-am : A competition in which professionals and amateurs are paired as partners.
Pro shop : An equipment shop at a course, operated by the head professional.
Provisional ball : A ball played if the previously hit ball may be lost or out of bounds. If the first ball is found, or is discovered to be in bounds, that ball is played. Otherwise, the player continues playing the provisional ball.
Pull : To hit the ball relatively straight, but to the left of the target, for a right-handed player.
Punch : A low, controlled shot hit into the wind. As a verb, to hit such a shot.
Push : To hit the ball relatively straight, but to the right of the target, for a right-handed player.
Putt : A shot made toward the hole, when the ball is already on the putting surface.
Putter : A club especially designed for putting. It usually has a short shaft and a straight face.
Putting green : The surface around the hole, which is specially prepared for putting.
Putting surface : Same as putting green.

R & A : Abbreviation for the royal and ancient golf club of St. Andrews, Scotland, which established the international rules of golf in collaboration with the US Golf association.
Rabbit : A touring professional who has to compete in qualifying rounds in order to play in tournaments.
Rap : To hit a putt firmly.
Rating marker : A permanent marker indicating the point at the front of the teeing ground from which distance to the green is measured.
Read the green : To examine the slope and texture of the green in order to determine what path the ball should take on a putt.
Recovery shot : A shot from an undesirable position, such as a hazard or the rough, onto the fairway or green.
Referee : The official who is in overall charge of a tournament or match. He or she is responsible for deciding all questions of fact and of golf law, and may act on any breach of rule, whether directly observed or reported by an observer.
Reverse overlap : A type of grip, often used in putting, in which the right index finger overlaps the left little finger, for a right-handed player.
Rifle : To hit a shot with distance and accuracy.
Rim : To roll around the edge of the cup.
Rim out : To roll around the edge of the cup without dropping in.
Rough : Areas of long grass adjacent to the teeing ground, fairway, greens, or hazards.
Round : A complete circuit of a golf course, usually 9 or 18 holes.
Round robin : A type of tournament in which each player has one match against each other player, with victory going to the player who wins the most matches.
Rub of the green : An accident in which an outside agency stops or deflects the ball, for which there is no relief under the rules. Also, golf's equivalent of "that's the way the ball bounces."
Run : The distance the ball rolls after a shot lands.
Run-up : An approach shot that is hit close to or along the ground so that the ball will roll toward the hole.

Sand iron : A heavy, lofted club formerly used for playing out of bunkers. Also sometimes applied to the sand wedge.
Sand trap : A hazard containing sand; a bunker.
Sand wedge : An iron with a heavy flange, designed primarily for use in getting out of sand traps.
Scare : The area of a wood club where the head and shaft are spliced together.
Scotch foursome : A match in which partners take turns hitting the same ball. They alternate driving, no matter who holed out on the previous hole.
Scratch : Descriptive of a zero handicap.
Scratch golfer : A player has a zero handicap; thus, one who averages par.
Scruff : To scrape or cut the turf with the club head before hitting the ball.
Set : A full complement of golf clubs.
Shaft : The part of the club, including the grip, that is joined to the head.
Shag : To retrieve balls hit from the practice tee.
Shag bag : A bag in which practice balls are carried.
Shank : The portion of the hosel nearest the club's face. As a verb, to hit a shot with the shank, which causes it to go sharply off line, usually to the right for a right-handed golfer.
Shapiro : Similar to a mulligan, but after hitting the second ball, the player can choose which one to play for the rest of the hole.
Short game : That part of the game of golf involving shots in which is accuracy is more important than distance.
Side : Two or more golfers playing as partners.
Sidehill lie : A lie in which the ball is on a hillside and is therefore either above or below the golfer's feet.
Single : A match involving two players, one against the other.
Skins : A betting game in which the player who wins a hole wins a pot. If there is no winner, the pot is carried over and added to the pot for the next hole.
Skull : To hit the ball above its center, usually on a chip or pitch shot, causing it to travel too far.
Sky : To hit well underneath the ball, causing it to go higher and therefore shorter than intended.
Skywriting : A poor swing, on which the club head makes a loop or circle at the top of the backswing. This usually results in a shank.
Slice : A shot that curves strongly from left to right, for a right-handed golfer, because of clockwise rotation. As a verb, to hit such a shot.
Slider : A low shot that takes erratic bounces.
Smother : To hit down on the ball, causing it to travel a short distance along the ground.
Snake : A long putt that traverses several breaks in the green.
Snap hook : A very acute hook.
Snipe : A sharply hit hook that drops quickly.
Socket : The opening, in the neck of an iron, where the shaft is fitted.
Sole : The bottom of the club head. As a verb, to place the sole of the club on the ground during address.
Sole plate : A metal plate that protects the bottom of a wood club.
Spade-mashie : Obsolete name for a no. 6 iron.
Spike mark : A mark made on the green by a golf shoe's cleats.
Spoon : Obsolete term for a no. 3 wood.
Spot putting : A method of putting in which the player uses a spot on the green as an aiming point.
Spray : To hit the ball way off line.
Square : Descriptive of a tied match, as in, "the golfers were square after 15 holes."
Square stance : A stance in which the feet are lined up parallel to the ball's expected line of flight.
Stableford : A scoring system based on points rather than strokes. Eight points are awarded for a double eagle, 5 for an eagle, and 2 for a birdie. A point is subtracted for a bogey and 3 points are subtracted for a double bogey or worse. The player who accumulates the most points wins the round.
Stance :The position of the feet during the address.
Starter : An official who is responsible for seeing that golfers tee off at the proper time and in the correct sequence.
Stick : The flagstick.
Stimpmeter : An instrument for measuring the speed of greens. It's a 30-inch aluminum trough raised to a 20-degree angle. A ball is placed in the top of the trough and released to roll down onto the green. The distance it rolls after leaving the trough is then converted to a stimp reading.
Stipulated round : A round played on all 18 holes of a course in their numbered sequence.
Stony : Descriptive of a shot hit very close to the flagstick.
Stroke : A swing at the ball with the intent of hitting it. Also, a golfer's swing in general, as in, " Karrie Webb has a smooth but powerful stroke."
Stroke and distance : A penalty in which the golfer is penalized a stroke and has to play the shot again, thus is also penalized the distance the first ball was hit.
Stroke play : Competition based on the number of strokes taken for a stipulated round, or a predetermined number of stipulated rounds, with the low score winning.
Stymie : Originally, the situation in match play in which an opponent's ball lies in the line of a player's putt. Formerly, the shot had to be played, but now the blocking ball may be lifted, so the term usually refers to a tree or other object that lies between the ball and the flagstick.
Sudden death : A playoff in which the first golfer to win a hole also wins the match or tournament.
Swing : The full action involved in stroking the ball, which includes the takeaway, backswing, downswing, and follow through.

Tee : A disposable device of wood, metal, or plastic, on which the ball is placed for driving. Also, the area from which the ball is hit on the first shot of a hole.
Tee off : To hit a shot from the tee.
Tee shot : A shot played from a tee.
Tee up : To place the ball on the tee, preparatory to beginning play.
Teeing ground : The area from which the golfer must tee off on a hole. The ball must be teed up within the markers and no more than two club lengths behind them.
Texas wedge : The putter when it's used outside the putting green, as to hit the ball from a chipping distance or out of a trap.
Thin : Descriptive of a shot in which the ball is hit above center and the head of the club is following too high a line.
Thread : To steer the ball through a narrow opening, as between two closely-placed trees.
Three ball : A type of competition in which three golfers compete against each other.
Threesome : Three golfers playing a round together; also, a type of match in which two golfers take turns hitting the same ball, in competition against a single player.
Toe : The part of the club head farthest from the junction with the shaft. As a verb, to hit the ball with that part of the head.
Toe job : A shot hit too near the toe of the club.
Top : To hit the ball above center, which causes it to roll or hop instead of flying.
Topspin : Forward rotation of the ball in flight.
Touch : The ability to place shots accurately.
Touch shot : A delicate shot with extreme accuracy.
Tournament : A competition involving a number of golfers, which may be match play or stroke play. Most professional tournaments are at stroke play over four rounds, or 72 holes. In a match-play tournament, players are paired for matches, with a winner advancing to the next round, until only two golfers remain to play a final match for the championship.
Triple bogey : A score of 3 over the designated par for a hole.
Trouble shot : A shot taken from a difficult position or a bad lie.
Turn : To begin playing the last 9 holes after having finished the first 9.
Twosome : A single; also, two golfers playing a round together.

Waggle : Preliminary movement of the club head behind and over the ball, preparatory to the swing itself.
Water hazard : A hazard that contains water.
Water hole : A hole that has a large, conspicuous water hazard between the teeing ground and the putting green.
Wedge : An iron with a heavy flange on the bottom and a high loft. There are two types: the sand wedge and the pitching wedge.
Whiff : To swing and miss the ball.
Whipping : The thread or twine wrapped around the area where the shaft joins the head. It's often replaced by a plastic ferrule.
Whippy : Descriptive of a very flexible shaft.
Wind cheater : A shot played low, usually with heavy backspin, into the wind.
Winter rules : Local rules that allow a golfer to improve the lie of the ball on the fairway, primarily because of unusual conditions resulting from winter weather.
Wood : Formerly a club with a wooden head, but now a club that has a large head of wood or metal. It's generally used for shots requiring greater distance than irons.
Wormburner : A hard hit ball that stays close to the ground.

Sweet spot : The dead center of the club face.
Swing  The full action involved in stroking the ball, which includes the takeaway, backswing, downswing, and follow through.


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Résultats et Champions

L'un des meilleurs joueurs du monde (4 Majeurs; 15 victoires sur le PGA Tour et 13 sur l'European Tour), il a régné sur la planète golf pendant 95 semaines entre le 4 mars 2012 et le 19 septembre 2015. L'un des grands maîtres du golf mondial (petit gabarit de 1m75, il a une moyenne de 273 m au drive !), il est une grande star (sur 25 tournois disputés en 2012, il n'a terminé que sept fois au-dessous de la 10eme place). Il a été nommé 'Joueur de l'année' en 2012...
Un grand golfeur (4eme joueur mondial en juin 2013) terminant 100 fois dans le top-10 d'un tournoi entre 2009 et 2019. Neuf victoires sur le tour américain depuis ses débuts en 2000 dont le WGC- Match-Play Championship en 2013, son plus beau succès en carrière (en battant le tenant du titre Hunter Mahan, il empoche ainsi 1,1 million $), le Honda Classic en 2002, The Barclays en 2010, le prestigieux tournoi 'The Players' en 2012, le Memorial en 2013 (son deuxième succès de cette s...
Le meilleur golfeur australien depuis Greg Norman (n°2 mondial en mars 2016), il est aussi le joueur le plus élégant du circuit actuel. Le 19 mai 2014, il est devenu le 17e golfeur n°1 mondial après avoir occupé la 2eme place (derrière Tiger Woods) pendant 38 semaines (plus de 300 semaines dans le top-10 mondial). Il restera au total 12 semaines au sommet détrôné le 4 août par Rory McIlroy. En avril 2013 après sa victoire au Masters, son premier titre en Grand Chelem, il est devenu le pre...
Vainqueur de trois Majeurs à presque 24 ans : le Masters et l'US Open en 2015 puis le British Open en 2017. Avec Rory McIlroy, Dustin Johnson et Jason Day, il règne sur la planète golf (meilleur joueur mondial pendant 26 semaines entre le 16 août 2015 et le 26 mars 2016). En 2015, il a failli de devenir le 3eme golfeur de l'histoire à remporter trois Majeurs dans une saison. L'avenir lui appartient avec trois Majeurs à son actif, il est le deuxième golfeur après Jack Nicklaus à af...
L'un des meilleurs golfeurs du circuit actuel (pour la 4eme fois n°1 mondial depuis le 3 mars 2019). Un grand frappeur, 'DJ', un géant de 1m93, est devenu le 19 février 2017, à 32 ans, le nouveau maître du golf mondial succédant à l'Australien Jason Day en tant que n°1 mondial. Il restera au sommet pendant 64 semaines de suite (jusqu'au 12 mai 2018) cèdant sa place à son compatriote Justin Thomas, puis la récupère un mois plus tard pour la perdre de nouveau le 9 septembre...
Formé sur le Challenge Tour, 'Brooksy' est l'un des meilleurs golfeurs du moment. L'homme aux quatre Majeurs à seulement 29 ans, il a été n°1 mondial pendant 9 semaines entre octobre 2018 et janvier 2019 puis une nouvelle fois en mai 2019 après sa victoire à l'US PGA. Vainqueur de l'US Open en 2017 et 2018 (4eme en 2014) et de l'US PGA en 2018 (en réalisant le plus bas score sur 72 trous en Grand Chelem : 264) et en 2019 (avec un score de 128 après 2 tours,...
  - Record de victoires : 5 par Walter Hagen (1921 et de 1924 à 1927) et Jack Nicklaus (1963, 1971, 1973, 1975 et 1980). - Record de participations : 37 par Arnold Palmer et Jack Nicklaus. - Plus jeune vainqueur : Gene Sarazen à 20 ans et 5 mois en 1922. - Vainqueur le plus âgé : 48 ans par Julius Boros en 1968. Il est également le golfeur le plus âgé ayant gagné un ‘Majeur’. - L’écart de coups le plus important entre le vainqueur et le deuxième : 8 par Rory McIlroy ...
L'US PGA (PGA Championship) a longtemps été le dernier majeur de la saison se déroulant vers le début du mois d'août. Il est considéré comme étant le moins prestigieux des quatre Majeurs. La dernière US PGA disputée en août a été la 100eme édition en 2018. En 2019, l'US PGA s'est joué au mois de mai. Depuis 1916, l’année de la fondation de la Professional Golfers Association, l’US PGA est organisé par des professionnels, contrairement aux trois autres, et leur e...
US PGA (PGA Championship) Prochain rendez-vous : au TPC Harding Park San Francisco en mai 2020 La 101eme édition de l'US PGA s'est déroulée du 16 au 19 mai 2019 pour la première fois de son histoire sur la Black Course du Bethpage State Park Golf Club situé à Farmingdale dans l'état de New York (hôte de l'US Open en 2002 et 2009 et de la future Ryder Cup en 2024) entre 156 joueurs dont les 100 meilleurs mondiaux qui se disputent le fameux Wanameker Trophy. A noter que c'est ...
  Tout savoir sur les tournois du Grand Chelem -  Hommes Depuis 1934, le Grand  Chelem se joue sur quatre tournois : le Masters (week-end du deuxième dimanche d'avril), l'US Open (week-end du troisième dimanche de juin), le British Open (week-end du 3eme vendredi de juillet) et l’US PGA (en août  le 4eme week-end après le British Open). Grand Chelem : le terme vient du bridge, utilisé lorsqu'un joueur remporte tous les plis d'une même partie. Ce terme a été employé pour la ...


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