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Billard - Billiar history - Article du : 09/11/2009


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La France, Britain, Spain and Italy claim the honor of having created the pool. That may flatter you. Some attribute this to the Chinese establishment. Let's not annoying because the Celestial Empire boasts the discovery of gunpowder, that it be war or rice, the compass and, among countless games, acrobatics, invented in 108 before BC Others say, with more likely to express the truth that the Crusaders brought the pool in the Middle East, under the aspects of Pall Mall. Finally, books teach us or want us to believe that the inventor of the game was Henry Vine, who lived under Louis XI and not under Charles IX as written by an Italian author. In fact, Grapevine, Joiner King of France, built for one pool table which we have every reason to believe it was the first of its kind with a bed of stone, cloth Elbeuf, hoop iron and bands. But this table it was his invention? The idea she came to Louis XI or a member of his entourage? No contemporary memory does not enlighten us on this detail. The key is that this pool to the new appearance, the ancestor of numerous tables that have since conquered the world, was built in 1496, sixteen years after the entry of Turks in Byzantium. Until the pool as Pall Mall in France or in England ballyars or bocce in Italy, or vilorta in Spain, was particularly in the beginning, a game played on outdoor clay courts surrounded by grass, but Soon the Parisians also indulges in the local soil composed of clay mixed with brick dust and leveled carefully. In this regard, re-tell that to the end of the fifteenth century, if appeared in the luxury clothing, rooms for games and instruments of these, there was little in the royal and princely apartments. King Charles VI in 1401, took such an order confirming those of his predecessors, by which it was donated to hospitals in the straw having furnished the bedrooms of the royal palaces. The already filthy straw, should cover the floors of wards. Hygiene was unknown. Even if mystery is set

Regarding the etymology of the word pool of authors claim, without supporting their theory of the least convincing assertion that the word comes naturally plundered from Latin, so the French ball. This is the view of the large Larousse and this reasoning, though simplistic, can have some semblance of accuracy. A little more or less plausible is the assumption made in the etymological dictionary of German, Kluge, the word billiards .. The author writes that the game of the Spanish villorta gave birth pool. This game being played in Old Castile and practices of passing a ball between two poles, using a curved stick called bilorta, the Basques have been billiards, which could extract Billiards French and Italians bigliardo. The current three billiard balls appeared around 1850. The first world championships were held in 1873. Other alternatives are developed: the pool table, snooker, English billiards.

The World Confederation of Billiards Sports ( WCBS) was founded in 1992 and has 97 member countries.

Recognized by the International Olympic Committee, the pool became an Olympic sport and will perhaps be a first appearance at the 2012 Olympics

Rules and Principles

With "billiard" players propel the ball in scoring points.

Equipment The table

The pool table is made of slate with a minimum thickness of 45 mm for billiard game and 40 mm for the half billiard game. This table can also be made of metal or other material with approval of the FFB


1. The FFB uses for its sporting events:

a) The pool of 3.10 m or "billiard game";

b) The pool of 2.80 m or "pool of half-match";

c) The pool of 2.60 m and 2.40 m so-called "small pool sizes.

2. The height of the pool between the ground and the upper surface of the frame must be 0.79 m to 0.80 m.


1. The ball, three in number, should be ivory, resin or other material approved by the FFB Two of those balls remain white color of polished ivory. The third is colored red. One of these two white balls will be marked at the two poles of a point indelible whose color is defined by the committee. The ball color: 1 white, 1 yellow, 1 red, are permitted.

2. The ball diameter for all game modes is at least 61 mm, 62 mm or less, and weight of 215 g to 240 g less than.


Flies are five in number. Three are located along the vertical axis they share the pool into four equal parts. The other two are located at 18.25 cm on both sides of the vertical axis and along a perpendicular axis passing through one extreme flies. This perpendicular called "starting line" indicates the bottom of the pool, the opposite side is up.


1. The motion is the ball using a tool set called "cue" can be

ize into two parts: the boom and the heel.

1. At the end of the arrow is fixed a disc, usually of leather, called "process".

2. The player must only use the process to hit the ball.

3. The player uses a tail of his choice and shall determine the length, weight and diameter.


The player has the right to use the "rake", a small rack mounted at the end of a rod of wood or other material and to replace the hand in certain positions of the body difficult.

The main rules Draw the Band

1. The party begins when the referee placed the ball other than red for drawing the band on the extension of the starting line near the main strip.

2. Players take the start on the top band. He whose ball lands closest to the bottom band has a choice of departure.


The player who gives the first stroke of the tail part is dotted with the ball or his choice (colored beads).

Starting Position

1. To all game modes except billiards and artistic parts of teams, the tee shot is played on the following position:

a) The red ball on the fly extreme isolation (upper pool);

b) the ball to the opponent on the fly central line of departure;

c) The ball the player, the last two sandstone flies except on one of two flies outside of the starting line.

2. The pile is starting to play the red ball and made either directly or through one or more bands.

3. The players remain the same ball the entire length of the game.

Different game modes

The FFB officially recognizes seven modes of play:

a) The free part;

b) A party to the framework 47 to a stroke;

c) The party to frame 47 in two shots;

d) The party on 71 under, two shots;

e) A party with a band;

f) The party with three bands;

g) The artistic billiards or game figures imposed.

However, in official competitions on billiard pool other than 3,10 m, the only parties recognized framework are:

- Over 2.80 m: 42 under, two shots, but without the text anchors.

over 2.60 m: 38 under, two shots, but without the text anchors.

There are four pool

- French billiards is played with one or more players on a table without pockets (or holes) with 3 balls, 2 white and 1 red. This is the most technical pool.

- The pool table (very popular among the young) who is played with a minimum of 2 players on a table with 6 pockets (or holes) with a ball of shock (white) and 15 colored balls that are numbered. Several other variants of pool cues have emerged.

- 8 English pool being played at 2 on a pocketed table with 16 balls.

- Snooker is played on a 2-to 6-pocket table with 22 balls.

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Résultats et Champions

Champion du monde de snooker en 1998, 2007, 2009 et 2011 (finaliste en 2017 et 2018).   Copyright Sportquick/Promedi ...
Champion du monde de snooker en 2000, 2003 et 2018 (2eme en 1999, 3eme en 1998 et 2011). Vainqueur du masters en 1998 et 2003 (finaliste en 2002) et finaliste du Players Championship en 2015. ...
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