jeudi 15 novembre 2018
Canoë-Kayak - Canoeing history - Article du : 09/11/2009

Canoeing - Olympic Sports

- A kayak is a closed vessel which is directed in a sitting position with a double paddle.

- A canoe is an open boat is headed in a kneeling position with a single paddle is not attached to the boat.


8,000 years ago, the canoe was a means of transport used by the Canadian Indians, the Polynesians in the Pacific and the Eskimos of Greenland. Armed with a paddle on her knees, they ascended or descended the rivers. They made canoes by hollowing out a tree (birch). The canoe, built in resin, can capsize and recovery (eskimo) water vives.La oldest archaeological evidence of the existence of the canoe, a relic of about 6,000 years was discovered in the tomb of a king Sumarien close River Euphrates. It is estimated that this old relic is about 6000 years.

The kayak was used as a means of hunting or fishing by the Eskimos of Alaska, Labrador and Greenland. Built in reindeer bone and wood and covered with sealskin. It can capsize and recovery (eskimo) with a waterproof skirt that is tight at the waist.

The first competitions were held in Canada in canoes to many paddlers. It was John MacGregor, a Scottish lawyer, who introduced the sport in Europe. He designed a kayak inspired by a former model with whom he traveled the lakes and rivers of Europe unknown and later became an author of travel narrative. He founded the Royal Canoe Club and organized the first races in 1866.

The first international federation was born in Copenhagen in 1924. Also in 1924 there took place the first demonstration on the Seine man car at the Paris Olympics.

In 1931 the French Federation of Canoe is created and, in 1932, Dr. Max Eckert, president of the German, took steps to form an International Federation with as main objective the inclusion of the Paddle Sports Program Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936. These efforts will succeed and canoeing will become an Olympic sport.

The International Canoe Federation (ICF, 115 members) was founded in 1946 in Stockholm, Sweden, replacing the one based in Copenhagen in 1924. Key Dates:

1871 Creation of the New York Canoe Club

1880 Foundation of the American Canoe Association

1900 Foundation of the Canadian Canoe Association

1938 First World Championship men's water flat

1948 First World Championship for Women

1949 First World Championship Slalom

Canoe / Kayak and Olympic

Demonstration sport in 1924, canoe kayak flat water sport became a full medal in 1936. The women compete in kayak. The slalom has made a first appearance in 1924, reintroduced in 1972, missing for 20 years and then became an Olympic sport in 1992.

In the Olympic tournament, the women compete in races of 500 meters in single kayak, tandem flights and quadruple (that is to say, K1, K2 or K4), whereas men compete over distances of 500 and 1000m in cars and two-seater kayak (K1 and K2), 1000m kayak four (K4) and the 500m and 1000m in a canoe or two spaces (C1 and C2).

The three main disciplines :

- The road race in calm water

- Slalom whitewater

- The downhill race or river sports (whitewater).


Other disciplines are developing and are the subject of competitions:

- The kayak polo in calm water, with national championships,

- The marathon in calm water

- Kayaking wave (surf)

- Kayaking to disabled

- Hiking (tourism) in rivers of all sorts and all countries.

At Sea:

- Sea kayaking,

- The merathon,

- The wave-ski.

Online Course in calm water

The origins of the race line dating to the nineteenth century.

Travel a given distance on a calm pool of water with 9 parallel lanes marked, 9 opponents in direct opposition, in order to get the rank in order of arrival:

- In

iduellement cars with boats.

- 2 or 4 with boats 2 and 4 seats.

- Kayak (K) and canoeing (C).

- Speed: 200, 500 and 1000 m.

- Background: from 5000 m to the marathon during the winter.


For kayaks, all kinds of construction materials are allowed. Sections and longitudinal lines of the hull of the kayak must be convex and not interrupted. The rudders are permitted. The maximum thickness of the rudder blade shall not exceed 10 mm for the K1 or K2, and 12 mm for the K4, where the rudder would form an extension to the length of the kayak.

For canoes, all kinds of construction materials are allowed. Sections and longitudinal lines of the hull of the canoe must be convex and not interrupted.

Before 1963, the date of onset of kayaks rigid polyester laminate, kayaks were made of wood and folding on a concept developed by the German Klepper in 1907. Inspired by the Eskimo kayak, the kayak is covered with a cloth raincoat instead of sealskin. The French Marcel Bardiaux devised a model (approx. 4.50 m, 23 kg) in 1930. The kayak carbon Kevlar''''lighter than its predecessor in 1976.

Means of propulsion

- Kayaks are open boats, usually made of wood. They were propelled by paddles double.

- Canoes are closed vessels, fiberglass or wood. They were propelled by paddles simple. The paddles can never be fixed on the boat.


They are fiberglass or ash.

- Canoeing: length 2.23 / 2.32 m for men and 2.16 / 2.26 m for women

- Kayaking: The length is variable.

Germany's Birgit Fischer Schmidt has the best track record in a kayak with 8 Olympic gold medals won between 1980 and 2004 (over 4 silver). She has also won 27 titles at the world championships since 1979. It is closely followed by Sweden's Gert Fredriksson with 6 gold medals (plus a silver medal and one bronze) at the Olympic Games of 1948, 1952, 1956 and 1960 without forgetting its 10 titles of World Champion in K1 and K2.

Do vousqu'un "kayaker" uses a sea kayak and / or river. A "paddlers" uses only a kayak at sea

Whitewater Slalom

The slalom is held in an artificial basin of fresh water on a course of approximately 250 meters which are installed between 18 and 21 red or green doors. The green doors are to be taken in the direction of descent (the head and part of the vessel must pass between the two sheets), the red gates are taken in the direction of the climb. If you touch, you are penalized two seconds if it passes, fifty seconds. A round slalom has d ^ SOE about a minute and a half.

There are three types of boats: canoe car, two seater canoe and kayak. In canoes, the athlete is seated and uses a simple while paddling in kayaks, they sit and have a double paddle.

Men (K1, C1 and C2) and women (K1) should negotiate as quickly as possible from 20 to 25 doors in swift water over a distance of 300 meters. Doors (green) must be crossed in the direction of flow. Six doors (red) are to be taken against the tide. If the athlete touches a door, he is penalized 2 points if he does not pass the door, he is penalized 50 pts. Whoever accumulates the pointer points with a fastest time is declared the winner.


As downhill, they are car kayaks and canoes for one or two places.

K1: the driver is seated holding a double paddle

C1 and C2: the driver is seated legs folded into a single paddle

Since 2004, the vessels are shorter to make the race more dramatic.

Their dimensions are:

Boat K1 C1 C2

Long. min. 3,50 m 3,50 m 4,10 m

Width. min. 0,60 m 0,65 m 0,75 m

Weight min. 9 kg 10 kg 15 kg


The routes are drawn on the eve of the trials of former champions.

There are four Olympic events, the C1 and C2 men for the K1 men and women. At the world championships, there is a team event in each type of boat since 2009 and a trial in women C1 (demonstration).

There are two qualifying heats in each category, the top twenty compete for the semifinals and then the next ten finals. For the final round on a new course is more difficult route.


1. All doors must be completed in numerical order.

2. The crossing of a door begins when:

- The boat, paddle or body touches a pole of the door

- The body (trunk over head) of competitor (in a single C2 competitors) crosses the plane of the door.


1. 0 points penalty: crossing correctly and without fault of a door.

2. 5 penalty points: crossing a door key, but with a pole. Button repeatedly to a single pole is penalized only once.

3. 50 penalty points:

- Key to a door of 1 or 2 poles properly without crossing it.

- Voluntary movement of a pole to allow the crossing of a door (the classification of "voluntary displacement of a pole" should not be withheld when the body and / or competitor's boat are in a position such that they have crossed properly and in a sense correct the normal plane of the door).

- Eskimo Roll in a door without proper crossing.

- Crossing of a door in a direction different from that imposed by the layout of the course.

- Gate omitted a door is considered missed if the crossing of one of the following doors are closed.

- Are penalized 50 points for every door still omitted.

The portion of the vessel under a boom gate, without touching it, is not penalized.

Since 2009, the International Federation allows athletes to double categories. A kayaker can both compete in kayak or canoe.

The descent

The raid, carried out in rough waters, is a "course against the clock to a turbulent stretch of river.

There are courses in

iduelles, and teams of three boats in the same category.

Both kinds of competition are:

- Descent "classic" that lasts 4 or 5 km and have a duration between 12 and 20 minutes;

- Run "sprint" from 1 to 2 minutes on a journey of 500 meters with obstacles spectacular.

The descent is not part of the Olympic program.


The organization must have a stretch of river with a length ranging from three to eight miles, the average time to turn a race around twenty minutes. He is currently trying races over short distances, about 500 m and with dramatic obstacles.

There are 6 classes of rivers according to their degree of difficulty. Class 1: easy Class 2: moderately difficult; Class 3: difficult class 4,5 and 6: very difficult to limit seaworthiness.


The boats are kayaks to a place (K1) and a canoe (C1) or two places (C2). The dimensions are regulated and taxed weight.

Boat K1 C1 C2

Long. max. 4.5 m 4.3 m 5 m

Width. min. 0.6 m 0.7 m 0.8 m

Weight min. 10 kg 11 kg 18 kg

The rudders are prohibited and propulsion is provided by a paddle-type totally free, double kayaks and single canoes for.

Other Disciplines Marathon

Introduced in the 1980s, it is run by canoe or kayak on the water or river (class I) with 2 or 3 ports on a distance of 10 to 42 km (20 km minimum for men, 15 km minimum for women). There is a world championship held since 1988.

Created in 1985 by clubs from Vallon Pont d'Arc and Bourg St-Book Depot, Marathon International des Gorges de l'Ardeche is one of the biggest races worldwide descent (similar to the Vasaloppet cross-country skiing or the Roc d'Azur in MTB) brings together each year thousands of participants including some fifty major champions.

The kayak polo

The kayak polo is a team sport that is played by teams of 5 players (+ 3 substitutes).

Players move paddle in a rectangular area of calm water of 35 m by 20 m with two goals raised to 1.50m by 1m. The goal of each team is to throw the ball using the hands or the paddle with the aim of the adversary

The hike in calm water

It is nowadays the most practiced activity in France. Go with your family and friends for the day or for several days, hostels, hotels or bivouac camping to discover landscapes, villages, etc.. The French water trails covering 25 000 km of navigable routes.

Swimming in deep water or hydrospeed

A new discipline which is to descend the river on a kind of runs (float) with a pair of fins. The swimmer is equipped with a combination of enhanced and a helmet. The balance problems, fear of being reduced to a minimum, this new discipline allows faster progression based on fun and playful. There is a championship of France (slalom, downhill, freestyle).


It is a device equipped with paddles simple, directed by a coxswain. It consists of inflatable tubes and is capable of taking 4, 8 to 12 people in Whitewater. There is an inflatable canoe, but for 2 or 3 people: the Hot-Dog, a good intermediary who facilitates the transition to the rigid kayak.

The merathon

Long distance running disputed sea kayaking.

The wave-ski

Sitting on a board with a paddle, the outing on the slopes while Schuss down the waves.

The first wave-skis were introduced in France in 1985. Initially, the wave-ski, thicker than a surfboard, was used by rescue workers on Australian beaches in search of swimmers in difficulty. It lies between surfing and kayaking (paddling on a surfboard). Attached to the device by a strap to the pelvis and foot straps to the foot, waveur outing on the slopes of the wave moving along a surfer. Today, it became a sport of gliding on its own.

There is a world championship. Among the best French: Caroline Angibaud, five times world champion, and Mathieu Babarit, three times world champion.

Freestyle Kayaking

Very dramatic, he was born in the rapids in the United States there ten years on the initiative of the kayakers from the slalom or downhill thrill seekers. He is performing acrobatics, falling in torrents, rapids or turbulent waters. The kayaks used are polyethylene, very short (between 200 and 230 cm) with flat bottom hulls.

The Englishman Shaun Baker (26-4-64) is in the best extreme kayakers. Since 1996 he holds the world record jump in a kayak, 19.7 m, built on the falls Aldeyjarfoss Iceland. It also kayak down the highest peaks of the snowy ground.


Upstream: Against the current.
Downstream: In the same direction as the water flow.
Bar: Element of a canoe which supports the structure and extending across the canoe from side to side between the gunwales.
Chute: An area where a river narrows suddenly, compressing and amplifying the current energy on a narrow strip of water.
Still Waters: Waters lake or river without quiet fast.
Elimination round: First

ISIONS a competition, first qualifying for the finals or semifinals.
Eskimo Roll: Reversal or capsizing of a canoe, the paddler remaining in position, then restore the canoe to the end of turn.
Make rudder Allow drag the paddle to create resistance, causing the stern of the canoe to turn toward the helm when the movement is executed by the stern man.
False Start: Check in which one or several boats leave early.
Rudder piece or plank of wood or metal attached by hinges vertically to the stern of a kayak and sprint to divert the craft.
Stern Men: paddler who kneels or sits in the back of a canoe or a canoe or kayak.
Cover skirt worn by paddlers in whitewater events that attaches around: Cover worn by paddlers in whitewater events that attaches around the cockpit so tight to prevent water from entering.
Kevlar: profiled fiber, composed of polyamide synthetic long chain, very strong and resistant to high temperatures.
Width: widest part of a canoe.
Line: Route a whitewater paddler chooses to follow to enter the gates.
Main carrier: paddler kneels or sits in front of a canoe or kayak, also called "bow rower.
Channel: Part narrow a paddle held by the paddler.
Passage: Part of the race corresponding to an execution path.
Penalty of 50 seconds: Penalty against slalom paddlers missing a door.
Penalty of two seconds: Penalty awarded against slalom paddlers who touch a pole during the transition to a door.
Gunwale: Upper side of a canoe
Upstream Gate: Gate Slalom striped red and white to be negotiated against the current.
GATE: Gate Slalom green stripes and white negotiated in the same direction as the current.
Stern: Rear of a vessel.
Take the wave: Get an unfair advantage in sprint events by standing on the wave of a boat and got shot by it.
Propulsion circular strokes circular bringing the canoe to turn in the opposite direction to the movement of the circle and executed by the stern man.
Propulsion-recovery: paddle ending with a steering system.
Bow: The front of the boat.
Bow: The front of a boat.
Keel: Each forming the edge of the hull of the canoe along its entire length.
Rower, prominent paddler kneels or sits in front of a canoe or kayak, also called "main carrier.
Rule five meters: rule prohibiting any boat from coming within five meters of a vessel placed at its sides, thus preventing him from taking the wave of it.
Whirlpool: Zone calmer waters outside the mainstream, where doors are often placed upstream.
Right Bank: Right side of the water appears as the paddler facing downstream.
Left Bank: Left side of the water appears as the paddler facing downstream.
Slalom race in canoes to zigzag, like a journey to ski downhill, following a route of bends defined by artificial obstacles.
Sprint racing canoe / kayak in a straight line in calm water.
Fall through: dangerous situation in which the canoe was caught in the current against an obstruction or turning on the side.
Drive: strokes executed by the rower pulling the bow paddler forward at an angle of 90 degrees toward the course, bringing the bow of the canoe to turn in the direction of pull.
Wave sulcus of rough water or broken following a moving ship.


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Résultats et Champions

Spécialiste en kayak slalom. Champion du monde en K1 en 2018 et en K1 par équipes en 2010 et 2011. Champion d'Europe de K1 par équipes en 2015 (2eme en 2010, 2012 et 2013; 3eme en K1 en 2012 et 2016). ...
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Il y a deux disciplines en eaux vives, le slalom (discipline olympique) et la descente (discipline non-olympique). Les championnats du monde sont organisés par l'International Canoe Federation (ICF). L'avant dernière édition a eu lieu au Pyrénées Whitewater Stadium de Pau en France en septembre 2017 à la fois en slalom et et descente sprint entre 500 athlètes venus de 57 pays. C'est la première fois de l'histoire que les Mondiaux combinent les deux disciplines de slalom et de...
Il y a deux disciplines en eaux vives, le slalom (discipline olympique) et la descente (discipline non-olympique). Les championnats du monde sont organisés par l'International Canoe Federation (ICF). L'avant dernière édition a eu lieu au Pyrénées Whitewater Stadium de Pau en France en septembre 2017 à la fois en slalom et et descente sprint entre 500 athlètes venus de 57 pays. C'est la première fois de l'histoire que les Mondiaux combinent les deux disciplines de slalom et de...
Il y a deux disciplines en eaux vives, le slalom (discipline olympique) et la descente (discipline non-olympique). Les championnats du monde sont organisés par l'International Canoe Federation (ICF). L'avant dernière édition a eu lieu au Pyrénées Whitewater Stadium de Pau en France en septembre 2017 à la fois en slalom et et descente sprint entre 500 athlètes venus de 57 pays. C'est la première fois de l'histoire que les Mondiaux combinent les deux disciplines de slalom et de...
Le plus grand slalomeur de l'histoire avec 5 couronnes mondiales en individuel en C1, en 1979, 1981, 1983, 1987, 1989 (2eme en 1985). Egalement sept fois de suite champion du monde par équipes (de 1979 à 1991). Vainqueur de la coupe du monde en 1988, 1989 et 1990.   Copyright Sportquick/Promedi ...
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